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MySQL范围分区

范围分区表的分区方式是:每个分区都包含行数据且分区的表达式在给定的范围内,分区的范围应该是连续的且不能重叠,可以使用values less than运算符来定义。

1、创建普通的表

CREATE TABLE employees (
    id INT NOT NULL,
    fname VARCHAR(30),
    lname VARCHAR(30),
    hired DATE NOT NULL DEFAULT '1970-01-01',
    separated DATE NOT NULL DEFAULT '9999-12-31',
    job_code INT NOT NULL,
    store_id INT NOT NULL
);

2、创建带分区的表,下面建表的语句是按照store_id来进行分区的,指定了4个分区

CREATE TABLE employees (
    id INT NOT NULL,
    fname VARCHAR(30),
    lname VARCHAR(30),
    hired DATE NOT NULL DEFAULT '1970-01-01',
    separated DATE NOT NULL DEFAULT '9999-12-31',
    job_code INT NOT NULL,
    store_id INT NOT NULL
)
PARTITION BY RANGE (store_id) (
    PARTITION p0 VALUES LESS THAN (6),
    PARTITION p1 VALUES LESS THAN (11),
    PARTITION p2 VALUES LESS THAN (16),
    PARTITION p3 VALUES LESS THAN (21)
);

--在当前的建表语句中可以看到,store_id的值在1-5的在p0分区,6-10的在p1分区,11-15的在p3分区,16-20的在p4分区,但是如果插入超过20的值就会报错,因为mysql不知道将数据放在哪个分区

3、可以使用less than maxvalue来避免此种情况

CREATE TABLE employees (
    id INT NOT NULL,
    fname VARCHAR(30),
    lname VARCHAR(30),
    hired DATE NOT NULL DEFAULT '1970-01-01',
    separated DATE NOT NULL DEFAULT '9999-12-31',
    job_code INT NOT NULL,
    store_id INT NOT NULL
)
PARTITION BY RANGE (store_id) (
    PARTITION p0 VALUES LESS THAN (6),
    PARTITION p1 VALUES LESS THAN (11),
    PARTITION p2 VALUES LESS THAN (16),
    PARTITION p3 VALUES LESS THAN MAXVALUE
);

--maxvalue表示始终大于等于最大可能整数值的整数值

4、可以使用相同的方式根据员工的职务代码对表进行分区

CREATE TABLE employees (
    id INT NOT NULL,
    fname VARCHAR(30),
    lname VARCHAR(30),
    hired DATE NOT NULL DEFAULT '1970-01-01',
    separated DATE NOT NULL DEFAULT '9999-12-31',
    job_code INT NOT NULL,
    store_id INT NOT NULL
)
PARTITION BY RANGE (job_code) (
    PARTITION p0 VALUES LESS THAN (100),
    PARTITION p1 VALUES LESS THAN (1000),
    PARTITION p2 VALUES LESS THAN (10000)
);

5、可以使用date类型进行分区:如虚妄根据每个员工离开公司的年份进行划分,如year(separated)

CREATE TABLE employees (
    id INT NOT NULL,
    fname VARCHAR(30),
    lname VARCHAR(30),
    hired DATE NOT NULL DEFAULT '1970-01-01',
    separated DATE NOT NULL DEFAULT '9999-12-31',
    job_code INT,
    store_id INT
)
PARTITION BY RANGE ( YEAR(separated) ) (
    PARTITION p0 VALUES LESS THAN (1991),
    PARTITION p1 VALUES LESS THAN (1996),
    PARTITION p2 VALUES LESS THAN (2001),
    PARTITION p3 VALUES LESS THAN MAXVALUE
);

6、可以使用函数根据range的值来对表进行分区,如timestampunix_timestamp()

CREATE TABLE quarterly_report_status (
    report_id INT NOT NULL,
    report_status VARCHAR(20) NOT NULL,
    report_updated TIMESTAMP NOT NULL DEFAULT CURRENT_TIMESTAMP ON UPDATE CURRENT_TIMESTAMP
)
PARTITION BY RANGE ( UNIX_TIMESTAMP(report_updated) ) (
    PARTITION p0 VALUES LESS THAN ( UNIX_TIMESTAMP('2008-01-01 00:00:00') ),
    PARTITION p1 VALUES LESS THAN ( UNIX_TIMESTAMP('2008-04-01 00:00:00') ),
    PARTITION p2 VALUES LESS THAN ( UNIX_TIMESTAMP('2008-07-01 00:00:00') ),
    PARTITION p3 VALUES LESS THAN ( UNIX_TIMESTAMP('2008-10-01 00:00:00') ),
    PARTITION p4 VALUES LESS THAN ( UNIX_TIMESTAMP('2009-01-01 00:00:00') ),
    PARTITION p5 VALUES LESS THAN ( UNIX_TIMESTAMP('2009-04-01 00:00:00') ),
    PARTITION p6 VALUES LESS THAN ( UNIX_TIMESTAMP('2009-07-01 00:00:00') ),
    PARTITION p7 VALUES LESS THAN ( UNIX_TIMESTAMP('2009-10-01 00:00:00') ),
    PARTITION p8 VALUES LESS THAN ( UNIX_TIMESTAMP('2010-01-01 00:00:00') ),
    PARTITION p9 VALUES LESS THAN (MAXVALUE)
);

--timestamp不允许使用任何其他涉及值的表达式
基于时间间隔的分区方案,在mysql5.7中,可以基于范围或事件间隔实现分区方案,有两种选择
a、基于范围的分区,对于分区表达式,可以使用操作函数基于date、time、或者datatime列来返回一个整数值

CREATE TABLE members (
    firstname VARCHAR(25) NOT NULL,
    lastname VARCHAR(25) NOT NULL,
    username VARCHAR(16) NOT NULL,
    email VARCHAR(35),
    joined DATE NOT NULL
)
PARTITION BY RANGE( YEAR(joined) ) (
    PARTITION p0 VALUES LESS THAN (1960),
    PARTITION p1 VALUES LESS THAN (1970),
    PARTITION p2 VALUES LESS THAN (1980),
    PARTITION p3 VALUES LESS THAN (1990),
    PARTITION p4 VALUES LESS THAN MAXVALUE
);

CREATE TABLE quarterly_report_status (
    report_id INT NOT NULL,
    report_status VARCHAR(20) NOT NULL,
    report_updated TIMESTAMP NOT NULL DEFAULT CURRENT_TIMESTAMP ON UPDATE CURRENT_TIMESTAMP
)
PARTITION BY RANGE ( UNIX_TIMESTAMP(report_updated) ) (
    PARTITION p0 VALUES LESS THAN ( UNIX_TIMESTAMP('2008-01-01 00:00:00') ),
    PARTITION p1 VALUES LESS THAN ( UNIX_TIMESTAMP('2008-04-01 00:00:00') ),
    PARTITION p2 VALUES LESS THAN ( UNIX_TIMESTAMP('2008-07-01 00:00:00') ),
    PARTITION p3 VALUES LESS THAN ( UNIX_TIMESTAMP('2008-10-01 00:00:00') ),
    PARTITION p4 VALUES LESS THAN ( UNIX_TIMESTAMP('2009-01-01 00:00:00') ),
    PARTITION p5 VALUES LESS THAN ( UNIX_TIMESTAMP('2009-04-01 00:00:00') ),
    PARTITION p6 VALUES LESS THAN ( UNIX_TIMESTAMP('2009-07-01 00:00:00') ),
    PARTITION p7 VALUES LESS THAN ( UNIX_TIMESTAMP('2009-10-01 00:00:00') ),
    PARTITION p8 VALUES LESS THAN ( UNIX_TIMESTAMP('2010-01-01 00:00:00') ),
    PARTITION p9 VALUES LESS THAN (MAXVALUE)
);

b、基于范围列的分区,使用date或者datatime列作为分区列

CREATE TABLE members (
    firstname VARCHAR(25) NOT NULL,
    lastname VARCHAR(25) NOT NULL,
    username VARCHAR(16) NOT NULL,
    email VARCHAR(35),
    joined DATE NOT NULL
)
PARTITION BY RANGE COLUMNS(joined) (
    PARTITION p0 VALUES LESS THAN ('1960-01-01'),
    PARTITION p1 VALUES LESS THAN ('1970-01-01'),
    PARTITION p2 VALUES LESS THAN ('1980-01-01'),
    PARTITION p3 VALUES LESS THAN ('1990-01-01'),
    PARTITION p4 VALUES LESS THAN MAXVALUE
);

范围分区的真实案例实践:

#不分区的表
CREATE TABLE no_part_tab
(id INT DEFAULT NULL,
remark VARCHAR(50) DEFAULT NULL,
d_date DATE DEFAULT NULL
)ENGINE=MYISAM;

#分区的表
CREATE TABLE part_tab
(id INT DEFAULT NULL,
remark VARCHAR(50) DEFAULT NULL,
d_date DATE DEFAULT NULL
)ENGINE=MYISAM
PARTITION BY RANGE(YEAR(d_date))(
PARTITION p0 VALUES LESS THAN(1995),
PARTITION p1 VALUES LESS THAN(1996),
PARTITION p2 VALUES LESS THAN(1997),
PARTITION p3 VALUES LESS THAN(1998),
PARTITION p4 VALUES LESS THAN(1999),
PARTITION p5 VALUES LESS THAN(2000),
PARTITION p6 VALUES LESS THAN(2001),
PARTITION p7 VALUES LESS THAN(2002),
PARTITION p8 VALUES LESS THAN(2003),
PARTITION p9 VALUES LESS THAN(2004),
PARTITION p10 VALUES LESS THAN maxvalue);

#插入未分区表记录
DROP PROCEDURE IF EXISTS no_load_part;

DELIMITER//
CREATE PROCEDURE no_load_part()
BEGIN
    DECLARE i INT;
    SET i =1;
    WHILE i<80001
    DO
    INSERT INTO no_part_tab VALUES(i,'no',ADDDATE('1995-01-01',(RAND(i)*36520) MOD 3652));
    SET i=i+1;
    END WHILE;
END//
DELIMITER ;
 
CALL no_load_part;
#插入分区表记录
DROP PROCEDURE IF EXISTS load_part;
 
DELIMITER&& 
CREATE PROCEDURE load_part()
BEGIN
    DECLARE i INT;
    SET i=1;
    WHILE i<80001
    DO
    INSERT INTO part_tab VALUES(i,'partition',ADDDATE('1995-01-01',(RAND(i)*36520) MOD 3652));
    SET i=i+1;
    END WHILE;
END&&
DELIMITER ;
 
CALL load_part;

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